Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Enterprise Architecture Essay Example for Free

Undertaking Architecture Essay 1) The three key orders used to viably develop a Foundation of Execution are: Operating Model This directs the degree of business process mix and normalization for conveying merchandise and enterprises to clients. Procedure Integration portrays the degree to which specialty units share information and empowers start to finish and a solitary interface for the client The Operating Model includes a pledge to how the organization will work Endeavor Architecture This is the sorting out rationale for business procedures and IT framework which mirrors the coordination and normalization prerequisites of the company’s working model. The Enterprise Architecture gives a drawn out perspective on a company’s procedure, frameworks, and innovations so as to assemble long haul manageable capacities. IT Engagement Model The IT Engagement Model is the administration instrument that guarantees business and IT anticipates accomplish both nearby and companywide goals. This Model impacts ventures choices guaranteeing that singular arrangements are structured by the undertaking design. The IT Engagement Model gives arrangement among IT and the business destinations of undertakings. 2) The Enterprise Architecture imparts the elevated level business procedure and IT prerequisites of a company’s working model. This contrasts from IT Architecture to the level of granularity that is introduced. Undertaking Architecture doesn't give the important subtleties to delineate specialized or procedure structure necessities. The IT Architecture created by the IT unit is a progressively itemized engineering of utilizations, information and data, and innovation. IT Architecture when created with an away from of the Enterprise Architecture gives long haul esteem since they give the drawn out vision to quick arrangements. 3) The current market patterns and speed at which innovation and the serious scene is continually changes make it hard for companiesâ to have the option to adjust and endure. Complex Information frameworks limit organizations from having the option to adjust so as to contend or use new innovation and ideas. Organizations without a strong establishment face the accompanying dangers: The impacts of developing multifaceted nature on business activities The weight that deftness puts the establishment of execution Role of business discipline in current national and worlds of politics Role of expenses without establishment of execution Business nimbleness progressively relies upon a Foundation of Execution. Actualizing normalize, digitized forms brings about less complex innovation situations, lower cost activities and more prominent nimbleness. 4) A working model has two measurements: business process normalization and incorporation. Organizations are portrayed into the accompanying Operating Models: Expansion: Low Standardization, Low Integration Coordination: Low Standardization, High Integration Replication: High Standardization, Low Integration Unification: High Standardization, High Integration Models: a. Unification Model †Delta Airlines Comprised of numerous IT stages unfit to speak with one another Management and IT staff arrived at a typical comprehension of what abilities the organization would create to help future systems. So as to make an unmistakable vision the board characterized four center procedures. b. Broadening Model †Carlson Companies Each of Carlson’s arrangement of organizations run pretty much autonomously of one another. Carlson’s endeavor design center graph shares specialized framework administrations while the specialty units hold authority over neighborhood business procedures and IT applications c. Coordination Model †MetLife MetLife’s procedure and working model concentrated on giving incorporated client care across items. This necessary extraction of client data and making it halfway accessible d. Replication Model †ING DIRECT ING DIRECT’s administration modules digitize normalized forms over its specialty units. The recognizable proof of significant assistance classifications assists the executives with understanding existing capacities and target new chances. 5) The four phases of Architecture Maturity are: Business Silo Architecture: where organizations hope to expand singular specialty unit needs or useful needs Normalized Technology Architecture: giving IT efficiencies through innovation normalization and, much of the time, expanded centralization of innovation the executives Streamlined center design: gives companywide information and procedure normalization as fitting for the working model Business Modularity Architecture: where organizations oversee and reuse approximately coupled IT-empowered business process parts to save worldwide measures while empowering neighborhood contrasts 6) The key ramifications of the four design stages are as per the following: Business Silos †Local/Functional streamlining Normalized Technology/IT productivity Advanced center/Business Operational effectiveness Business Modularity/Strategic Agility 7) The three principle fixings 0f the IT Engagement Model: Companywide IT administration: choice rights and responsibility structure to empower alluring conduct in its utilization Project the board: formalizedâ project technique, with clear expectations and ordinary checkpoints Linking components: procedures and dynamic bodies that adjust motivating forces and associate the task level exercises to the general IT administration. 8) IT administration is the choice rights and responsibility system for empowering alluring practices in its utilization. IT administration reflects more extensive corporate administration standards while concentrating on the administration and utilization of IT to accomplish corporate execution objectives. IT administration includes five significant choice territories identified with the administration and utilization of IT in a firm, which should all be driven by the working model: I. IT standards: significant level choices about the key job of IT in the business II. Undertaking engineering: the sorting out rationale for business procedures and IT foundation III. IT framework: halfway organized, shared IT administrations giving piece of the establishment of execution IV. Business application needs: business prerequisites for bought or inside created IT applications that both use and manufacture the establishment for execution V. Prioritization and venture: choices about how much and where to put resources into IT, including venture endorsement and support procedures. 9) Linking systems is the third fundamental element of the IT commitment model. Connecting instruments interface companywide administration and tasks. Great IT administration guarantees that there’s clear heading on the best way to develop the company’s establishment. Great venture the board guarantees that tasks are executed successfully, proficiently, and in a steady way to augment learning. Great connecting components guarantee that ventures gradually construct the company’s establishment and that the structure of the company’s establishment is educated by ventures. There are three sorts of connecting systems (design linkage, business linkage, and arrangement linkage) that address the key arrangement and coordination worries of the organization. Design Linkage builds up and refreshes principles, surveys ventures for consistence, and supports exemptions. Engineering linkage interfaces the IT administration choices about engineering with venture structure choices. Business linkage guarantees that business objectives are made an interpretation of successfully into projectâ goals. Business linkage organizes ventures, associates them to bigger change endeavors, and concentrates extends on tackling explicit issues in the most ideal manner. Arrangement linkage components guarantee continuous correspondence and exchange among IT and business concerns. Business IT relationship troughs and Business unit CIOs are regularly a basic linkage fro interpreting to and fro between business objectives and IT imperatives. 10) The three elements of commitment that make business esteem are IT administration, Project the executives and Linking instruments. Clear, explicit, and noteworthy destinations: In request to be successful, IT commitment models explain vital targets so normalization and mix necessities are clear. Inspiration to meet organization objectives: Formal motivating forces, for example, extra plans, yearly audits, and so on help guarantee center from specialty unit pioneers and venture supervisors on organization, specialty unit and task objectives Requirement authority: Formal implementations, for example, integral to formal motivations help manufacture an effort’s believability. Implementation gives a procedure to evolving, stopping, or giving an exemption to a task that isn't agreeable with the objective undertaking engineering. Early Intervention and avoidance: In request to forestall awful arrangements structure being condescended, IT bunches draw in with business ventures during the most punctual phases of advancement to keep awful arrangements from being planned in any case and furthermore to figure out how to improve target design. Straightforward, ordinary, two-way correspondence: Good commitment guarantees that everybody is sure about how the model functions. Arrangement and coordination are accomplished and kept up through ordinary exchange among business and IT and across specialty units.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Organizational controls and structure in business

Authoritative controls and structure in business Presentation Authoritative structure can be characterized as the proper arrangement of assignment and authority connections that control how individuals facilitate their activities and use assets to accomplish hierarchical objectives. (Jones, et al, 2010)â [i]â Authoritative structure determines: The organizations formal announcing connections, strategies, controls, and authority and dynamic procedures; and, The work to be done and how to do it, given the organizations procedure or techniques Building up a hierarchical structure that adequately underpins the organizations technique is troublesome, particularly on account of the vulnerability about the reason impact relationship in the worldwide economys quickly changing and dynamic serious environments.â [ii]â Hierarchical Controls Association Control incorporates any procedure intended to guarantee that association plans are completed the manner in which they were structured. Control in the hierarchical setting can be delegated: 1. Vital controls 2. Budgetary controls Vital controls are generally abstract rules planned to confirm that the firm is utilizing suitable systems for conditions in outside condition and the companys serious advantage. [iii] Strategic controls are worried about looking at the fit between: What the firm may do (openings in its outside condition) What the firm can do (upper hands) Monetary controls, then again, are to a great extent target rules used to gauge the organizations execution against recently settled quantitative standards.iii Financial controls have two rules: Bookkeeping based measures include: Degree of profitability Profit for resources Market-based measures include: Monetary Value Added (EVA) Relative utilization of controls shifts by kind of methodology. Enormous broadened firms utilizing a cost authority procedure stress money related controls. Organizations and specialty units utilizing a separation methodology underscore key controls. In connection with hierarchical structure, authoritative controls are essential to quantify the impact brought about by an adjustment in the structure. Connections among Strategy and Structure Procedure and structure have an equal relationship. Structure streams from or follows the determination of the organizations technique however once set up, structure can impact current key activities just as decisions about future procedures. Transformative Patterns of Strategy and Organizational Structure The connection between associations system and structure was concentrated widely by Alfred D. Chandler in his incredible book Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. As indicated by Chandler (1962), firms develop in unsurprising examples: First by volume At that point by geology At that point incorporation (vertical, level) Lastly through item/business expansion Chandler likewise says that an organizations development designs decide its basic structure. All associations require some type of hierarchical structure to actualize and deal with their procedures. Firms habitually adjust their structure as they develop in size and multifaceted nature. The three essential structure types are: Basic structure Useful structure Multidivisional structure (M-structure) Worldwide development structure The accompanying figure clarifies the change in hierarchical structure with development and technique. D:Chap11graphicsMultidiv_fig 11.1.jpgD:Chap11graphicsFunctional_fig 11.1.jpgD:Chap11graphicsSimple_fig 11.1.jpg Productive usage of figured technique Productive usage of figured technique D:Chap11graphicsSalesHigher_fig 11.1.jpgD:Chap11graphicsSalesLower_fig 11.1.jpg Straightforward Structure A straightforward structure is the place the proprietor chief settles on all the significant choices and screens all exercises while the staff fills in as an expansion of the administrators administrative power. (C. Levicki, 1999). This kind of a structure is coordinated with center systems and business-level procedures where firms generally contend by offering a solitary product offering in a solitary geographic market. Practical Structure A practical structure is a plan that gatherings individuals together based on their regular ability and encounters or on the grounds that they utilize similar assets. (Jones, et al, 2010) Functional structure underpins utilization of business-level systems and some corporate-level techniques single or predominant business with low degrees of broadening. Multi-divisional Structure The multi-divisional structure (M-structure) comprises of working divsions, each speaking to a different business or benefit focus in which the top corporate official agents obligations regarding everyday activities and specialty unit system to division administrators. Multi-divisional structure has three significant advantages: Corporate officials can all the more precisely screen the exhibition of every business, which improves the issue of control Encourages correlations between divisions, which improves the asset allotment process Invigorates administrators of inadequately performing divisions to search for methods of improving execution Universal Strategies and Worldwide Structures Worldwide systems are getting progressively significant for long haul serious accomplishment in what keeps on turning into a worldwide economy. The accompanying system clarifies how associations appropriate in a worldwide economy: Worldwide extension methodologies Worldwide extension methodologies can be comprehended regarding neighborhood responsiveness and topographical joining inside the organization. Based on these two parameters, four systems of worldwide extension have been shown up at. These are: Worldwide methodology Multi-household methodology Worldwide procedure Transnational procedure Worldwide Strategy If there should be an occurrence of global technique, firms decentralize all worth creation capacities aside from RD and advertising. Multi-residential Strategy Multi-residential methodology is situated towards nearby responsiveness by decentralizing control to auxiliaries and divisions in every nation. Worldwide extension Strategy Worldwide extension procedure is arranged towards cost decrease, with all the chief worth creation capacities incorporated at the least cost worldwide area. Transnational Strategy In a transnational system a few capacities are brought together, while others are decentralized at the worldwide area most appropriate to accomplishing these destinations. Transnational Worldwide Expansion Universal incorporation Multi-residential Strategy Universal Strategy Neighborhood Responsiveness A perception on structure and system The hypothesis created above is just a rule to how associations may structure themselves in their quest for development and worldwide extension. Be that as it may, these are not general standards and numerous associations have succeeded regardless of structures totally out of sync with those examined previously. Associations can likewise utilize structures which are a half and half of those point by point above. This examination investigations the instances of two associations, ABB and Semco, which have utilized contrastingly various structures to actualize their techniques. ABB File:ABB logo.svg Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) is seen by increasingly more worldwide business pioneers as the model of the way that associations should work to flourish in the 21st century-that is, smoothed out in structure, quick in moving data, having representatives who are exceptionally enabled, focused on consistent picking up, running world-class HRD projects, and group working and systems administration globally.â [1]â ABB got one of the most generally respected organizations on the planet, not as a result of its items, or its creative innovation, but since of its authoritative structure. ABB highly esteemed being an association that its previous CEO, Percy Barnevik, saw as being at the same time worldwide and nearby, of all shapes and sizes, brought together and decentralized. Development of ABB: Merger of Asea Brown Boveri ABB was made by the merger in 1987-88 of two organizations whose roots lie in the nineteenth century: Asea, established in Sweden in 1890, and Brown Boveri, built up in Switzerland in 1891. The two organizations were among the flood of mechanical ventures built up towards the finish of the nineteenth century to give gear to the quickly extending electrical force industry, which included creating, transmitting, and conveying force, and utilizing it in modern engines. The vital pledge to the force business and to a worldwide system was shown in a quick arrangement of collusions and acquisitions. These moves quickly broadened ABBs global venture into North America and Eastern Europe. The speed with which these acquisitions were coordinated into ABB was credited to the adaptability of its new association plan. Vital Context ABBs biggest business is delivering and adjusting the gear for creating, transmitting, and disseminating electrical force. The clients in this business are electric utilities around the globe, a considerable lot of which are state-claimed or unequivocally state-directed. Since national or nearby governments either legitimately own or in a roundabout way control the utilities, they had a solid propensity to support providers with a neighborhood producing nearness, both in light of the fact that neighborhood organizations are adding to the nearby economy and on the grounds that they can be depended upon for overhauling and new parts for the mind boggling power frameworks, any breakdown of which can have huge expenses for neighborhood business and for the notoriety of the utility. Yet, they have additionally squeezed providers to bring down their costs and increment the lifetime of hardware, cutting overall revenues for providers that can't accomplish more noteworthy proficiency underwa y. ABB is additionally a world chief in rail transportation frameworks, for example, trains, light rail vehicles, and flagging. Once more, this is a business wherein rail systems are state-possessed or state-controlled and subject to the equivalent to some degree opposing weights to make locally and

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

What happened since the end.

What happened since the end. Scatterred throughout the years are probably dozens of blog entries which begin with my eternal apologies for their lateness, and the fact that I havent blogged in forever. (The earlier back you look, the closer together those entries were. I used to say that after 3 or 4 days without writing anything. Silly freshmen.) They nearly always start with, So sorry guys, but I have been insanely busy these last dew days/weeks/months that I havent had time to write anything. Here, check out my full page to-do list. This time, I havent written for a week an a half, because Ive been doing nothing at all and its been utterly fantastic. But like any good MIT student, 10 days of that has driven me absolutely insane, so its back to productivitiy! Time to churn out the dozens of blog entries I planned but never wrote. Looking back in the archives, it seems that Mollie, the famously prolific, friendly, and helpful blogger, wrote entries right through the whole summer after her graduation, so according to her precedent I have some time yet. Lets see if I can get you up to speed on whats been going on in my life lately. The last you really heard from me, I had just turned in my thesis and was going to a meeting for a group project. I was none too happy about it, I might add. I have barely slept, my brain is completely liquid, I havent had a real meal in days (I pretty much made a dinner out of Sun Chips and pineapple soda the other night), I feel like absolute crap, and this is absolutely the last thing Id like to be doing right now. Im actually pretty miserable at the moment. Even down to the bitter end, MIT enjoys beating you down and destroying your soul. Right now, IHTFP is feeling pretty one-sided Well, the meeting was relatively painless- we finished most of the work, and all that was left to me was to rewrite the introductory paragraph to our paper to reflect our professors comments on our first draft, but even that was beyond my abilities at that point. I came home, ordered in Thai food, watched a stupid, mindless movie: and slept for 12 hours. When I got up, I rewrote the paragraph I needed, and proceeded to have the most miserable two and a half days of my life. IHTFP is a timeless motto of the Institute. People who dont understand the concept claim that it means different things to different people. This is false. The true nature of IHTFP is that it holds a dual meaning for all of us. Sometimes it means I have truly found paradise. Other times it means I hate this f?$%[emailprotected]# place. Sometimes it means both of these things at the same exact time. Well, last week it meant the second one, and the second one only, and quite vehemently. I honestly dont think Ive ever hating this effing place quite so much before in 4 full years. Tuesday morning and early afternoon I finished all of my work for 1.851 (Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries), which was pretty painless- just a few paragraphs on the readings, and a reflection on the semester. Two classes down, two to go. Now, keep in mind that I was pretty worn out at this point. 12 hours of sleep was not enough to make up for the previous.well, 4 years in general, but more specifically the few weeks of frantic thesis-writing stress. I had barely slept in the previous week, hadnt eaten a real full meal in far longer than that, and was just absolutely miserable in general. So when my D-Lab team decided that our prototype needed a major overhaul on Tuesday night, I almost lost it. At about 6 in the morning, after staying up with one other group member putting together the final paper and finally deciding to go to sleep so we could be in lab within 3 hours to finish the prototype our teammates had left behind for us to complete, I did lose it. We wont go into details, but I basically screamed obscenities into my pillow for a few minutes before collapsing for a few short, miserable hours of sleep. You see, after Sunday nights lack of sleep, the prospect of another all-nighter was absolutely sickening to me. So when I saw one looming on Tuesday night, it put me in a pretty foul mood. I honestly just thought I couldnt handle any more of it. You know that feeling, when youre like, no really, I actually cant take anymore of this? It was sort of like that. I lived through Tuesday night, spiraling into further misery knowing that despite how little tolerance I had left, Id be doing it again on Wednesday night. And its not like any of those miserable all-nighters actually taught me anything, or were at all instrumental in my education. I suppose they were made extra miserable because somewhere deep down I knew that I could just blow off the rest of my work and still at the very least pass everything, and as we learned a few weeks ago, D is for Diploma. Wednesday morning was spent working on the D-Lab prototype, and then the rest of the day and long into the night was spent on my set design project. The good news was that I was actually really excited about my set design project, and even looking forward to finishing it. (I was eventually really proud of my final product.) I honestly dont even remember how little I slept that night- its all just one sleepless blur. I got up early to make some print-outs and got to class with just enough time to pin up my images for our presentation. Our instructor had invited artists and designers and theater people from around the area to look at and comment on our designs, which was actually pretty cool. Id shown off my work in engineering classes like that several times (most notably in 2.009), but this was different, and a little scary at the same time. Because I mean really, Im not artistic. I showed my Photoshop model (which will be discussed in a later post), and got some good feedback. From there I went off to my last shift at work, then to my tutoring job, then back home. The end was truly in sight- classes were over but I still owed my set design instructor all of my supporting materials- inspirational images, preliminary sketches, a discussion of my thought process, etc. This was a somewhat tedious but easy task- it took me several hours to finish all of the updates to my set design blog (dont read it too closely- the last half of the entries were never proofread at all!). That night a bunch of friends were going out to celebrate the 21st birthdays of Andrew 10 and Justine 10. Sarah 09 came by my room at 11, but I was still frantically writing. I really, really just wanted to finish. I told her Id only be another half hour at the most, and that they should go ahead without me. I finally finished all my updates (at 11:13 PM, according to the timestamp- I can never f igure out how to make those things be in the eastern time zone) and emailed my instructor to let her know I was done. Then, I went out drinking. But responsibly! I mean, we were celebrating a couple of 21st birthdays, after all. We only stayed out for an hour or two, came back to the dorm, ate some nachos, and played some Halo. Then, I got to do something that I honestly dont think Ive really, truly done in 4 years: I went to sleep, and didnt get up until I felt like it. It was absolute bliss. Since then, Ive spent the past week and a half doing pretty much nothing at all. On Friday and Saturday Sarah 09 and I played a lot of Zelda. There are a lot of consoles in the Conner 4 floor lounge. Zelda! Sarah 09 has like, every version of Zelda ever released. And then some. Sarah played some Banjo-Kazooie while I played Zelda. We basically decided to take a break from Halo to play some old school games. Take us back to our childhoods, you know. On Sunday I trekked over to the student center and bought a membership to the MIT Science Fiction Society, home of the worlds largest open-shelf collection of science fiction. Ive know it was there for years, but knew that Id never have time to read any of the books- until now, of course. Im a little rusty, actually- I used to be able to plow through novels much faster than this, but I guess thats to be expected, considering how little leisure reading Ive done lately. But Ive made my way through a fair few books over the past week, and am looking forward to continuing that trend over the summer. On last Tuesday night I went out to dinner with some friends who were visting Boston. Wednesday morning I made breakfast for all of Conner 2 (even though I dont even live there anymore), and then hopped right on a bus for NJ. I spent a couple of days visiting my grandparents and volunteering at my churchs annual carnival. I came back here on Saturday afternoon, went to a party on Conner 3, did nothing but read on Sunday, and convinced Sarah and Adelaide to watch Dogma with me on Monday night. This inspired Sarah and I to watch more Matt Damon, because, seriously, who wouldnt want that? So yesterday I did pretty much nothing at all except watch the Bourne Identity and the Bourne Supremacy. (We finally got tired of sitting around watching movies after that, and decided to save the Bourne Ultimatum for today.) By the way, somewhere in there MIT finally caught up with what I already knew, and figured out that I finished everything. Its pretty exciting to log into my student account and see this: So, its been fun, this week of doing mostly nothing. But it is getting a little boring. So, today I decided to get back to this blogging thing. In a few minutes Ill be heading to a meeting with the director of MISTI-Spain to see if I can figure out what to do with myself next year. (Yeah, while there is still no actual plan, the plan for finding a plan has changed a bit, mostly because Im really indecisive.) Then its going to be a lot of blogging, packing, job searching, reading, and exercising (hopefully, Im seriously out of shape). Friday kicks off Senior Week. My parents, sister, and grandma get here on Thursday, just in time for the Pops concert. And then I graduate! Speaking of which, this is really exciting: The graduation stage has been under construction in Killian Court for awhile now, and everytime I pass it I get more excited. It looks pretty complete by now. And then, well, who the hell knows. Not me.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Debate On Gay Marriage - 2745 Words

I. Introduction to Moral Dispute: Gay Marriage Contemporary moral disputes are constantly ongoing around the world and in the United States. For hundreds of years marriage has been defined as the legally or formally recognized union of a man and a woman as partners in a relationship. Up until relatively recently the debate on gay marriage has not been a popular topic. Gay marriage has been illegal in the US and most countries around the world up until the early 2000s.[1] The debate on gay marriage has grown with more and more people publicly speaking and giving their opinions on it, especially in the Unites States. II. Opposing Views Gay marriage has been largely opposed in the US for years now for several different reasons that mostly†¦show more content†¦[3] The strong support of this argument by religious figures, such as the Pope, makes this a strong argument for the opposing side. However, in more recent years Pope Francis has made a slightly less opposing statement, when he said â€Å"Who am I to judge a gay person?† [4] Showing how times have certainly changed in regards to view on homosexual people. American historian Harry Jaffa agreed with this idea that being gay is not natural, he then argues that if people think that this is natural than many other ‘bad’ things are also natural. Jaffa believes, â€Å"if sodomy is not unnatural, nothing is unnatural. And if nothing is unnatural, then nothing - including slavery and genocide - is unjust†. [5]Jaffa argues that homosexuality is not natural because the only natural reason for relationships, according to the bible, is to have children. So, these arguments that homosexuality is unnatural and deviant (once again based off of the bible and religion) couple with the argument that the purpose for marriage, as defined by religion and the bible, is to reproduce, and since two men or two women cannot reproduce they should not be able to wed. An obvious continuation to this argument is the idea that by legalizing gay marriage it is giving the approval of homosexual

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Manhattan Project Making the Atomic Bomb

The Manhattan Project was the Allied effort to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Led by Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer, it developed research facilities across the United States. The Project was successful and made the atomic bombs used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Background On August 2, 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt received the Einstein–Szilà ¡rd Letter, in which the famed scientists encouraged the United States to develop nuclear weapons lest Nazi Germany create them first. Spurred by this and other committee reports, Roosevelt authorized the National Defense Research Committee to explore nuclear research, and on June 28, 1941, signed Executive Order 8807 which created the Office of Scientific Research Development with Vannevar Bush as its director. To directly address the need for nuclear research, the NDRC formed the S-1 Uranium Committee under the guidance of Lyman Briggs. That summer, the S-1 Committee was visited by Australian physicist Marcus Oliphant, a member of the MAUD Committee. The British counterpart of S-1, the MAUD Committee was driving forward in an attempt to create an atomic bomb. As Britain was deeply involved in World War II, Oliphant sought to increase the speed of American research on nuclear matters. Responding, Roosevelt formed a Top Policy Group, consisting of himself, Vice President Henry Wallace, James Conant, Secretary of War Henry Stimson, and General George C. Marshall that October. Becoming the Manhattan Project The S-1 Committee held its first formal meeting on December 18, 1941, only days after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Pulling together many of the nations best scientists including Arthur Compton, Eger Murphree, Harold Urey, and Ernest Lawrence, the group decided to push forward exploring several techniques for extracting uranium-235 as well as different reactor designs. This work progressed at facilities across the country from Columbia University to University of California-Berkeley. Presenting their proposal to Bush and the Top Policy Group, it was approved and Roosevelt authorized funding in June 1942. As the committees research would require several large new facilities, it worked in conjunction with the US Army Corps of Engineers. Initially dubbed Development of Substitute Materials by the Corps of Engineers, the project was latter re-designated the Manhattan District on August 13. During the summer of 1942, the project was led by Colonel James Marshall. Through the summer, Marshall explored sites for facilities but was unable to secure the needed priority from the US Army. Frustrated by a lack of progress, Bush had Marshall replaced in September by newly-promoted Brigadier General Leslie Groves. The Project Moves Forward Taking charge, Groves oversaw the acquisition of sites at Oak Ridge, TN, Argonne, IL, Hanford, WA, and, at the suggestion of one of the projects leaders, Robert Oppenheimer, Los Alamos, NM. While work progressed on most of these sites, the facility at Argonne was delayed. As a result, a team working under Enrico Fermi constructed the first successful nuclear reactor at the University of Chicagos Stagg Field. On December 2, 1942, Fermi was able to create the first sustained artificial nuclear chain reaction. Drawing on resources from across the US and Canada, the facilities at Oak Ridge and Hanford focused on uranium enrichment and plutonium production. For the former, several methods were used including electromagnetic separation, gaseous diffusion, and thermal diffusion. As research and production moved forward under a cloak of secrecy, research on nuclear matters was shared with the British. Signing the Quebec Agreement in August 1943, the two nations agreed to collaborate on atomic matters. This led to several notable scientists including Niels Bohr, Otto Frisch, Klaus Fuchs, and Rudolf Peierls joining the project. Weapon Design As production ensued elsewhere, Oppenheimer and the team at Los Alamos worked on designing the atomic bomb. Early work focused gun-type designs which fired one piece of uranium into another to create a nuclear chain reaction. While this approach proved promising for uranium-based bombs, it was less so for those utilizing plutonium. As a result, the scientists at Los Alamos began developing an implosion design for a plutonium-based bomb as this material was relatively more plentiful. By July 1944, the bulk of the research was focused on the plutonium designs and the uranium gun-type bomb was less of a priority. The Trinity Test As the implosion-type device was more complex, Oppenheimer felt that a test of the weapon was needed before it could be moved into production. Though plutonium was relatively scarce at the time, Groves authorized the test and assigned planning for it to Kenneth Bainbridge in March 1944. Bainbridge pushed forward and selected the Alamogordo Bombing Range as the detonation site. Though he originally planned to use a containment vessel to recover the fissile material, Oppenheimer later elected to abandon it as plutonium had become more available. Dubbed the Trinity Test, a pre-test explosion was conducted on May 7, 1945. This was followed by the construction of a 100-ft. tower at the site. The implosion test device, nicknamed The Gadget, was hoisted to the top to simulate a bomb falling from an aircraft. At 5:30 AM on July 16, with all the key Manhattan Project members present, the device was successfully detonated with the energy equivalent of around 20 kilotons of TNT. Alerting President Harry S. Truman, then at the Potsdam Conference, the team began moving to build atomic bombs using the tests results. Little Boy Fat Man Though the implosion device was preferred, the first weapon to leave Los Alamos was a gun-type design, as the design was thought more reliable. Components were carried to Tinian aboard the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis and arrived on July 26. With Japans refusal of calls to surrender, Truman authorized the bombs use against the city of Hiroshima. On August 6, Colonel Paul Tibbets departed Tinian with the bomb, dubbed Little Boy, aboard the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay. Released over the city at 8:15 AM, Little Boy fell for fifty-seven seconds, before detonating at the predetermined height of 1,900 feet with a blast equivalent to about 13-15 kilotons of TNT. Creating an area of complete devastation approximately two miles in diameter, the bomb, with its resulting shock wave and fire storm, effectively destroyed around 4.7 square miles of the city, killing 70,000-80,000 and injuring another 70,000. Its use was quickly followed three days later when Fat Man, an implosion plutonium bomb, fell on Nagasaki. Generating a blast equivalent of 21 kilotons of TNT, it killed 35,000 and wounded 60,000. With the use of the two bombs, Japan quickly sued for peace. Aftermath Costing nearly $2 billion and employing approximately 130,000 people, the Manhattan Project was one of the US largest endeavors during World War II. Its success ushered in the nuclear age, which saw nuclear power harnessed for both military and peaceful purposes. Work on nuclear weapons continued under the Manhattan Projects jurisdiction and saw further testing in 1946 at Bikini Atoll. Control of nuclear research passed to the United States Atomic Energy Commission on January 1, 1947, following the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. Though a highly secret program, the Manhattan Project was penetrated by Soviet spies, including Fuchs, during the war. As a result of his work, and that of others such as Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, the US atomic hegemony ended in 1949 when the Soviets detonated their first nuclear weapon. Selected Sources The Atomic Archive: The Manhattan ProjectNuclear Weapon Archive: The Manhattan Project

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Classical Approach to Management Free Essays

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. We will write a custom essay sample on Classical Approach to Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers) and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage’ oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others. II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. The problem of this research is how to use the classical approach to management in this researcher’s job as a manager and determine how it affects the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm’s resources to achieve the policy’s objectives. III. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The researcher aims to use the classical approach to management as a manager, and employ Henri Fayol’s general theory of management which consists of six primary functions of management and 14 principles of management, and Frederick Taylor’s scientific management which focuses on improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. IV. SYNOPSIS As the manager, this researcher will lay down the framework of organization first by creating the top-level managers. They will be responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They will develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, the top-level managers will be involved in the mobilization of outside resources and will be accountable to the shareholders and general public. In order to establish a strong, well-founded, and steady workflow, the researcher will integrate Fayol’s Principles of Management in outlining the business policy that will include: a) the mission of the business which is the most obvious purpose: b) the vision of the business which reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination: c) the objective of the business which refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed; d) the business policy that will stipulate rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ ecision-making(it must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees; and e) the business strategy which will coordinate plans of actions that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives, and will also serve as a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the business’s advantage. During the operational stage, the researcher will employ Taylor’s principles in maintaining economic efficiency emphasizing the prevention of interpersonal friction between workers and managers, and social tensions between the blue-collar and white-collar classes. To do this, the workforce will be given one seat to the Board of Directors so that they will be properly represented in ventilating their concerns. One good example of Taylor’s and Fayol’s approaches is the case of Bergen Community College (BCC) Bergen  Community College  is a diverse organization that consists of many different departments. The manager who supervises this college is responsible for over 500 employees and a customer (student) base of over 12,000. It is important for a manger to look at the needs of the students and then try to implement the best management system that satisfies all the members of the organization. One factor to look at is the environment of BCC. The main factors that concern the general environment of BCC are the economic conditions, social conditions and the technological factors. At the present time, the  economic factors  are favorable to BCC. The economy is doing well and most people are earning a higher income. This allows people to go to school and it also allows parents to send their children to school. Since the economy is doing well, there is more competition in the workplace, so one needs a higher education to move into a better position. Also, people could work less and make the same amount of money, thus freeing up time to attend classes at a school. All of these  economic factors lead to an increase in enrollment. However, these are not the only theories that are found in management. Many ther theories exist, and they all focus on a different aspect of management. The  Quantitative Approach  uses quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations, to improve decision-making. The Organizational Approach  is concerned with the behaviors of people at work. This theory has led to such things as human resources management, teamwork, motivation and leadership qualities. However, there are also some disadvantages that may occur. One disadvantage is that with less supervision, the employees may not work hard, thus decreasing performance. Also, there may be some bitterness between co-workers, decreasing the overall performance of the group will decrease. Instead of doing what is best for the organization, the workers may do things only for their benefit or makes them look good and not care about their peers or the organization. All of these forces in BCC’s general environment are affecting BCC in a positive way. They are causing the enrollment of BCC to increase. As a result, there are many factors in its specific forces that are becoming more complex. These factors are the suppliers, customers, competition, government agencies, and special interest. The suppliers are complex because there is a large number of customers at BCC. Thus, BCC has to ensure that they have proper furniture, classrooms, computers, and other everyday necessities. At the same time, the computer system of the various departments has to be properly maintained to make sure that the student’s records are properly kept. Also, proper maintenance of the buildings has to be maintained. This rapidly changing environment makes the job of any manager extremely difficult. However, she needs to take advantage of the good economy to increase the enrollment at the school as well as try and receive extra funding from the government and special interest groups to expand the school and the programs offered. At the same time, the manger needs to be aware of the competition for the students from the four-year universities and the increasing number of vocational schools. Also, the manager needs to make sure that the staff is doing its most to satisfy the needs of the customers V. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Scientific management – also called Taylorism, was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. 2. Administrative management – management approach that concentrates on the total organization. The emphasis is on the development of managerial principles rather than work methods. 3. Top-Level Managers – Typically consist of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEO, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public. 4. Workforce – VI. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research primarily aims to use the classical approach to management in this researcher’s job as manager in a private business enterprise and does not include political, educational, and financial institutions. It focuses on employing Frederick Taylor’s and Henry Fayol’s management approaches to find out its effects in today’s marketing and innovations. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY I. RESEARCH DESIGN This research is designed in several components: Document analysis, surveys of similar business enterprises, and interviews of managements and workforce, and assessment of findings. II. SAMPLING PROCEDURES The researcher will employ the stratified sampling technique so that the identified business enterprises that will be included in the sample will be represented in the same proportion that they exist in the population to enable the researcher draw appropriate inferences. The researcher also believe that this technique could lead to a more efficient statistical estimates. CHAPTER 3 I. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK According to Fayol’s theory, there were six primary functions of management namely; forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and monitoring; and 14 principles of management namely; Division of work, Authority, Discipline. , Unity of command, Unity of direction. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest, Remuneration, Centralisation, Scalar chain, Order, Equity. , Stability of tenure of personnel, Initiative, and Esprit de corps. Frederick Taylor  is often called the â€Å"father of scientific management. Taylor believed that organizations should study tasks and develop precise procedures. As an example, in 1898, Taylor calculated how much iron from rail cars Bethlehem Steel plant workers could be unloading if they were using the correct movements, tools, and steps. The result was an amazing 47. 5 tons per day instead of the mere 12. 5 tons each worker had been averaging. In addition, by redesigning t he shovels the workers used, Taylor was able to increase the length of work time and therefore decrease the number of people shoveling from 500 to 140. Lastly, he developed an incentive system that paid workers more money for meeting the new standard. Productivity at Bethlehem Steel shot up overnight. As a result, many theorists followed Taylor’s philosophy when developing their own principles of management. Utilizing Frederick Taylor’s and Henri Fayol’s principles of management, with little modification so as to adapt to the modern world of marketing and innovations, this researcher believes that interpersonal and social clashes will be minimized if not avoided, and a cost-effective, well-organized, competent, and efficient business enterprise would be established. II. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework of this researcher focuses on using the classical approach to management in his job as a manager that aims to establish whether it is still effective in today’s modern world of marketing and innovations. The substance of this study will primarily be dependent on the researcher’s data that will come from document analysis, surveys, interviews, and assessment of findings. III. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK The purpose of this research is to use the classical approach to management in this researcher’s job as manager to find out if the principle is still effective in today’s modern marketing and innovations. The type of research design used here is qualitative and institutional in nature. This entails the data analysis which will be extracted from the following: 1) document analysis; 2) surveys; 3) interviews; and 4) assessment of findings. This researcher then collates the data gathered from these areas to ascertain whether the classical approach could still play a vital role in the management of modern systems of business enterprises. How to cite Classical Approach to Management, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Hierarchical Leadership Structural Supports †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Hierarchical Leadership Structural Supports. Answer: Introeduction: I have found that there have been many concerns about the effectiveness of conducting virtual meetings. Thus, I want to have a quick discussion on the some of the critical areas that needs consideration while managing and leading virtual teams. Here, I must mention that virtual teams have become the norm of most of the organizations operating globally. To be precise, I believe close to around 66 percent of the multinational companies relies on virtual team management for meeting the challenges of the geographical expansion, ensure cost savings and meet the increasing demand for the flexibility in workplace (Aiken, Gu and Wang 2013). However, the critical areas that need attention while leading and managing a virtual team include: Building Of a 24X7 Work Cycle: I believe that the different time zones are a complication but if we think differently, it is also an opportunity for increasing the efficiency of working around the clock (Hoch and Kozlowski 2014). Moreover, greater attention while delegating work will help in overcoming the conflicting deadlines and language barriers. Facing the Unexpected: At some point, there might be a technology failure due to either poor internet connection or the malfunctioning of software. In such cases, you will have to be prepared with either a Plan B or Plan C that can be in the form of dial-in numbers (Fan et al. 2014) Maintenance of Clarity: I believe that the presence of a virtual team often blurs the boundaries of the responsibilities. One can handle this situation by ensuring specific actions to each member after every meeting. Holding Accountability: It is also necessary to create a climate for peer-to-peer accountability that will help in building a sense of trust amongst the teammates (Keil, Lee and Deng 2013). Otherwise, this might leave room for concerns and ambiguity that might not be voiced. Thus, there should be smart handling following a bottom up approach involving everyone. Nurturing Emergent Leadership: Emergent leaders are critical for ensuring innovation. However, when dealing with a virtual team the leaders and the team members should have a shared understanding and sense of acceptance (White 2014). Although, emergent leadership helps in generating positivity but it is important to remember that it leads the internal coercion and burning out caused by the imbalance of the workload. Spotting Differences in Culture: To understand the background of every teammate a critical step needed for the establishment of successful collaboration amongst virtual team members (Verburg, Bosch-Sijtsema and Vartiainen 2013). I believe that expectations significantly vary when it comes to the balancing of informal and formal communication. This is also true in dealing with issues like individualism, perception of time and power distance relationships. For ensuring effectiveness, it is necessary for to use the available tools for making cross-cultural comparisons. I believe that with the consideration of the above critical areas there will be greater effectiveness in leading and managing the virtual teams. Therefore, it not only supports the success of the multiple employees but at same time helps in developing newer capability in terms of the organization. References: Aiken, M., Gu, L. and Wang, J., 2013. Task knowledge and task-technology fit in a virtual team.International Journal of Management,30(1), p.3. Fan, K. T., Chen, Y. H., Wang, C. W. and Chen, M. 2014. E-leadership effectiveness in virtual teams: Motivating language perspective.Industrial Management Data Systems,114(3), 421-437. Hoch, J.E. and Kozlowski, S.W., 2014. Leading virtual teams: Hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership.Journal of applied psychology,99(3), p.390. . Understanding the most critical skills for managing IT projects: A Delphi study of Keil, M., Lee, H.K. and Deng, T., 2013IT project managers.Information Management,50(7), pp.398-414. Verburg, R.M., Bosch-Sijtsema, P. and Vartiainen, M., 2013. Getting it done: Critical success factors for project managers in virtual work settings.International journal of project management,31(1), pp.68-79. White, M., 2014. The management of virtual teams and virtual meetings.Business Information Review,31(2), pp.111-117.